Benefits of Coming to An Organic Hair Salon

A well-kept hair always leaves a good impression. This is the reason why proper hair care is important. Aside from leaving a good impression, hair care is crucial in helping to avoid extensive damage, which can lead to hair loss.

Part of your hair care routine is going to hair salons. While having your hair professionally maintained is good, you have to be aware that many products in hair salons contain a number of hazardous chemicals that can harm your health.

With this, you are wondering if you should stop coming to one. The good news is there are hair salons that use natural products. You will appreciate it more once you know its benefits. Here are the benefits of coming to an organic hair salon:

You get to avoid toxic ingredients

This should be emphasized. When you go to an organic hair salon, you are assured that they are not putting toxic chemicals on your scalp. By choosing organic or natural ingredients, you are assured that they are safe and gentle on your scalp. More importantly, natural ingredients deliver results that are the same with synthetic options but without a load of toxic.

If you must, you should check the formulations or ingredients of the products your salon is using. As much as possible avoid toxic ingredients such as sodium lauryl sulfates, propylene glycol, mureth sulfate, siloxanes, ammonium lauryl sulfate, and derivatives of lauryl alcohol.

You get more value
Many women are discouraged by the idea that organic hair salons are expensive. This is because organic products are more costly but when you look at it in the long run, you get a higher quality product thereby adding more value to your money. Keep in mind that a potent organic product will be more effective and will deliver actual results.

You help the environment
When you use synthetic products, it will go down the drain and into the environment. They are also difficult to break down. If you use organic hair products, you help the environment because it facilitates easy to break down. Aside from the waste, the extracting and manufacturing process create pollution, which is detrimental to the environment and the people.

You avoid product build-up
Synthetic ingredients will coat hair strands, which can possibly lead to product build-up. Over time, the product build-up will weaken your hair. When this happens, you will have unmanageable hair.

Organic salons use natural ingredients that will work in harmony with your hair. For instance, their cleansers are strong enough to clean the hair but gentle enough not to remove the natural oils.

You will have healthier hair
Ultimately, organic products promote healthier hair. This is because many ingredients are designed by nature to nourish not only the hair but also the scalp. At the end of the day, organic products will prevent breakage and stimulate new hair growth.

Conclusion
Remember that every small choice can have big effects. It will start with your lifestyle choices. With this, you need to consider chemical free salon. It is not only good for you but also for the environment. So, next time you are due for a hair touch-up, look for organic salons near you.

Things You Didn’t Know About Gustav Klimt Paintings

We have all heard about famous Austrian artist Gustav Klimt and his most prominent pieces such as The Kiss. However, throughout his artistic career, he had numerous difficulties, but we are not here to present you his brief biography, but only things you did not know about him.

Klimt artwork created controversyall acrossAustria, and when he had thrown the traditional aesthetics and took a unique approach, people created petitions that presented him as a pornographic artist.

However, that was not the case, and today his artwork worth millions of dollars, and he entered the group of immortal artists that created something different. Stay with us, to learn more on things you did not know about Gustav Klimt and his paintings:

  1. He Enjoyed Landscapes

The first thing we think when we hear about Gustav Klimt is his depictions of eroticism and women, but throughout his career, he created numerous paintings of landscapes, since he enjoyed them altogether.

It is the only genre that compelled him besides figure painting. According to his biographers, he frequently went to visit Lake Atter in Upper Austria and painted its landscape in his numerous pictures.

For instance, folks and locals that lived in this particular area nicknamed him forest demon or Waldschrat due to his extreme focus. He used the picture plane of his landscapes since he used a telescope to scope the compositions during the painting process.

  1. He Started Two Art Movements

It is a great thing to create an art movement especially if the one you create remains to the present day. The first movement he made was The Company of Artist, and it was a successful project that brought him numerous commissions.

The artists that were involved got both public attention and commissions, so it was a prominent perspective for all members. The second one was more popular and unique when compared with the first one,and we know it as Vienna Secession.

This particular movement brought to Klimt creative freedom and more significant, international acclaim. The movementwas associated with nontraditional art as well as symbolism that created a completely different perspective for the art of those days.

The Secession allowed and promoted young artists that wanted to break the chains of academic and traditional painting style and to embrace the creative and unique art that gets away from the relevant perspective.

It also brought the international artists to Vienna and made it global art hotspot, and the perfect place for exhibition. You should check here if you wish to learn more on Vienna Secession.

  1. He Wasn’t Interested In Himself

Even though he was into portraits during his early period, he still has not made any self-portrait. This is an unusual thing for artists of that time, primarilybecause he was interested in figure drawing.

On the other hand, he created an entire essay that presented the subject and answered the question of why he avoided self-portraits in his work. According to article, he never painted a self-portrait, because he was less interested in himself as a subject of the painting.

Instead, he enjoyed to portray women of all kind and thought that he did not have anything special to present to art lovers. He was a painter that paints on a daily basis, and he wanted to show others his interests by depictions of other people and landscapes.

He stated that looking carefully in his pictures would tell you everything about him, so self-portrait is irrelevant.

  1. He Didn’t Enjoy High Life

People tend to assume that Klimt’s painting is a translation of the luxurious life of Vienna’s aristocracy and high society, and that use of gold in his paintings wanted to present the benefits of his celebrity status.

However, that is not true at all, because he was a lone wolf and spent his days working and painting, wearing sandals and caftan without underwear (this is a historical fact). He did not want to blend with other artists and to increase his status and position, even though he could have.

Check this link: https://www.artsy.net/article/artsy-editorial-gustav-klimt to learn more on Gustav Klimt and his artistic approach.

  1. He Was Don Juan Of Vienna

As you can see from his paintings, he was completely obsessed with women, but that was not only an art. He was highly sexually active and never married, but the rumor states that he slept with every woman he painted.

Due to numerous affairs with his models, he claimed that the love of his life was the sister-in-law’s sister, designer Emilie Floge, and she was the muse of his masterpiece The Kiss.

Vitamins That Will Help Your Hair Grow Longer

The first thing that you will see when you look at someone is hair, especially if it is healthy-looking hair. In most cases, it is a sign of beauty and like any other parts of your body require nutrients and vitamins so that it can grow.

The most common reasons for hair loss are due to nutritional deficiencies, which mean that you should find a way to reduce this particular problem. Of course,other factors associatedit are genetics, age,and hormones.

If you wish to grow hair faster, then you need to make sure that you take essential vitamins and other nutrients to boost its growth. Below are the 3 most important vitamins for your hair.

  1. Vitamin A

It is vital to start with vitamin A because most cells require it for growth and the process of changing. Yes, we are talking that vitamin A can quickly help you grow your hair faster than before, mainlybecause it will help your skin glands and create sebum.

Sebum is an oily substance that moisturizes the scalp, which will keep it protected and healthy along the way. In case you consume diets that are deficient in vitamin A that could lead to severe issues, that includes hair loss among other problems.

Of course, have in mind that if you decide to consume this particular supplement, you should talk with your doctor because too much of it can be dangerous and problematic. According to most studies, an overdose of vitamin A can lead to hair loss and other issues as well.

You can find it in pumpkins, carrots, sweet potatoes, andspinach because all of them feature high amounts of beta-carotene, and this particular nutrient will turn into vitamin A through the metabolic process.

You can also find it in animal products such as yogurt, eggs,and mils as well as cod liver oil, or you can find supplements that will help you increase the intake of it. In overall, you will need this particular nutrient for hair growth, but try to avoid overdoing it.

Click here if you wish to learn more on this particular vitamin.

  1. Vitamin B

This is another vitamin that you should regularly consume so that you can increase your hair growth. For instance, biotin is one of the most important B vitamins, and if you have a deficiency, that will lead to hair loss.

It is also the common ingredient for hair loss treatment, and people with a deficiency will have the best results. However, have in mind that it is almost impossible to have the deficiency because you can find it in a wide array of foods that we consume on a regular basis.

Other B vitamins will help you create red blood cells, which will carry nutrients and oxygen to hair follicles and scalp.

This particular process is vital if you wish to increase the hair growth. You will be able to get them from numerous foods such as almonds, whole grains, and fish, and meat, leafy and dark greens among other foods.

Apart from that, animal foods are perfect sources for vitamin B12, so if you are vegan or vegetarian, the best thing that you can do to avoid hair loss and to boost its growth is taking supplements.

  1. Vitamin C

The first thing that you should remember is that this particular vitamin is the most essential for numerous things and operations within your body. Since free radical damage can cause your hair to age and block growth, you should consume this particular antioxidant.

To learn how to consume more vitamin C through natural and organic products, you should check this link: https://www.wikihow.com/Eat-More-Vitamin-C for more information.

It can help you protect your hair and body from oxidative stress, and you will need it to create collagen, which is an essential part of hair structure. Vitamin C is necessary because it will help your body absorb iron, which is one of the most vital minerals in hair growth.

You can find it in a wide array of fruits such as citruses, guavas, strawberries but also in peppers. It is vital to consume it regularly or to take appropriate amounts of supplements so that you can avoid hair issues along the way.

6 BRILLIANT CUTS FOR PROM DRESSES ACCORDING TO LATEST TRENDS

The best thing about the internet is that it has definitely brought the world closer together and because of that finding the latest fashion news, trends and do’s are not difficult at all. It is quite easy to find the latest designs of any type of dress with just a click. Take a prom dress for example, in the past years there have been so many changes in their designs and cuts, with which people just don’t know what to choose anymore.

I reiterate: the internet has solved this problem for us. Finding out the latest trends for a prom dress in 2019 is as easy as 1, 2 and 3. Just a simple click and away you go.

See here for example, we have stated 5 of the most brilliant prom dress styles that will surely make you look as if an angel or even the devil if that’s what you prefer is gracing the student body with their presence in that dress.

6 LATEST PROM DRESS TRENDS

  1. CUT OUT DRESSES: These dresses have become all the rage in recent years. If you want a simple style that accentuates your body and yet has something different about it, then cut out dresses are the dresses for you. These dresses have simple designs yet have shapes cut out of them in a few areas to give the dress and its wearer a more mature look.
  2. TWO PIECE DRESSES: As the name suggest this dress is a two piece; typically a blouse and skirt but it depends on the wearer’s choice if these are the two pieces she wants. Two piece prom dresses have become one of the most worn style of dresses in the past 2 years. They have a certain flair and versatility to them that cannot be copied by the other styles of clothing.
  3. BALL GOWNS: Ball gowns are the age old style of dress. These dresses have been in fashion since the beginning of time. They make the wearer feel like a fairy tale princess off to meet her Prince Charming at the ball.
  4. ILLUSION DRESSES: You know the dress that seems so simple at first glance but in reality is something completely different? Well illusion dresses are exactly that. These dresses look average but when you wear them, their cut, design and style help you stand out of the crowd as much as a two piece dress would.
  5. 20’s ERA: The 20’s era was a time of fashion and femme fatale. These vintage style dresses, like the ball gowns will never truly go out of fashion. The glitz and glamour in these dresses is something that speaks to femme in every teenager.
  6. SHORT DRESSES: These dresses are typically knee length and have a certain sultry look to them. They give the wearer a more mature outlook. They help you transform yourself into something quite different than what you truly

Packing Tips for a Tour to Japan

It’s always a good idea to do your research before you pack for a trip, especially if it is on the other side of the world. Even though some tips tend to be visible, you should write a checklist that will help you bring everything you planned.

If it’s your first time going to Japan, it’s recommended that you get the best packages that will allow you to see its natural attractions. Preparing for the trip is the biggest hassle, but as soon as you do it, you will be able to enjoy the whole trip.

  1. Bring Shoes That Are Simple To Put and Take Off

You should have in mind that many places in Japan such as traditional inns, izakayas, temples,and restaurants will require from you to take off and remove shoes before entering.

Therefore, you should consider taking some that will slip on and off easily, because you do not want to untie and lace your shoes every few moments.

It is essential to understand the cultural differences, so as soon as you see tatami mats, you will have to take off your shoes and that is a fact. You should bring a pair of socks with you all the time because they will consider it impolite to walk barefoot.

Of course, everything depends on your plans and itinerary, but it is wise to bring comfortable and light walking shoes. Since Tokyo is the best place for walking, it is a much better choice to sightsee on foot than using other means of transportation.

  1. Choose as Lightly As Possible Packing

You probably understand that it is useless to pack a heavy bag and to travel to any country, but when it comes to Japan that is highly essential to consider.

Have in mind that it will be much easier for you to travel with an easily-portable bag or some form of a suitcase that you can bring with yourself.

Since Japan features simple-to-use and comprehensive railway network most travelers tend to rely on it but have in mind that train stations and trains in overall won’t cater lots of luggage.

If you do not know what plenty of luggage means, you should remember that it represents anything more than a small rolling suitcase, or backpack.

Train stations in Japan tend to be overcrowded, and they do not feature plenty of escalators or elevators that will help you with luggage, which is especially true in rural areas.

Bullet train in Japan features a small area dedicated toa suitcase, and it is not wise to find a free spot for a largebag because space is considered as premium. You will be able to place small and carry-on bags in overhead areas.

When it comes to other types of trains in Japan, some of them may feature more space for luggage in overall, while others may not have at all. These are the reasons why you should travel with small suitcase or backpack.

  1. What To Wear

You do not have to purchase a new wardrobe for traveling to Japan, and we recommend you to leave space in your luggage so that you can shop in Japan, where you will find unique fashions that will help you understand their culture.

Fashion standards in Japan are high; it doesn’t mean you should dress up. Have in mind that Japanese people take care of their appearances, but you will find a wide array of eclectic styles that range from casual to chic.

It is similar to any other major places in the world such as Paris and New York, so prepare accordingly.

Why You Need to Think About Business Networking

Whether you are a small business or a conglomerate, business networking holds a lot of potential that can help your business move positively. Business networking is a means of forging relationships with other like-minded businessmen.

When you look at it closely, business networking is a valuable way to expand your knowledge. It is highly recommended. To convince you further, here are the reasons why you need to think about business networking now:

It generates referrals
The generation of referrals is probably the most obvious benefit of business networking. This is also the reason why most business owners participate in Melbourne Networking Events. These events will allow business owners to join networking groups.

Many business owners go after referrals from networking because they are normally high quality. If you follow these referrals or leads up, you can turn them into clients. This shows that the referrals are getting higher quality leads from networking more than other forms of marketing.

It creates opportunities
Another benefit is the creation of opportunities. There are always opportunities because of the abundance of like-minded people. These opportunities may include client leads, partnerships, and joint ventures. The opportunities in networking are really endless.

However, you need to ensure that you are considering the right opportunities. You have to be careful not to jump into every opportunity that comes your way because you will get nowhere. To be successful, the opportunities should align with your business goals.

It expands connections
Who you know can make a difference at the end of the day. If you want to be successful, you need to have relevant connections in your network that you can call on whenever you need them. Networking will really open your door when it comes to interacting with highly influential people. You are not only connecting to influential people but you are also tapping their network.

It identifies best practices
Networking is another way of identifying business best practices. When you meet a lot of people, you get to learn from others valuable strategy that you can use in your business. You will also get to know industry benchmarks.

Business networking will allow you to tap the expertise and advice of other businessmen, which you cannot get hold of during normal days. With the information around, you just have to make sure that you are getting it from the right person.

It raises your profile
Being noticed will benefit your business. With this, you have to regularly attend business and social events so can build your reputation and raise your profile.

It boosts your confidence
Business networking will push you to talk or interact with other business people. Whether you like them or not is another issue but this will ultimately boost your confidence in the long run.

It forges alliances
More importantly, business networking will Match Alliance. Many friendships and alliances form as a result of business networking because you are surrounded by like-minded business owners. Most of these business owners meet and help each other regularly.

At the end of the day, business networking will generate limitless business opportunities. With this, you have to make good use of every professional and social opportunity to meet and connect with like-minded people.

Marijuana Potency and THC Detoxing Tips

It is vital to understand that marijuana, similarly as other things evolved in the last few decades, and today, the strength of weed strains is strongest as ever.

According to a lab in Colorado, they decided to analyze 600 different samples of marijuana, both medicinal and recreational, and they have found that THC content has risen while CBD that features therapeutic value has declined.

Marijuana gained acceptance of the public in the recent few years that lead to a point where 23 states allowed medicinal use while other states also allowed recreational usage, however, that brought us to the point of regulations of marijuana sales, which is the main reason for critique.

You should check Test Clear reviews article that will provide you comprehensive insight on how to pass a drug test with ease.

It is essential to understand that the regulations of weed are changing, and we can expect reduced crime levels and the ability to purchase pot with therapeuticcapabilities.

Potency is increasing

The analysis we have mentioned above has stated that the main findings are that power has risen three times in the last few decades, especially when compared with previous strains and THC levels.

Due to high levels of potency, we are experiencing strong weed that features up to 30% of THC, which is a huge deal when we compare it with previous moments.

In thepast, the potency reached up to 10% of THC,and that is the way people bred and grew it because the market wanted this particular strength and feelings.

The most significant surprise is that analysis brought us to the point of variable potency based on specific requirements, which is not in the same way sellers are advertising.

Of course, when you want to take medicinal marijuana, the idea is to choose the one that features higher levels of CBD, because it will reduce thenumber of psychoactive effects and you will still gain numerous benefits when it comes to mental health and pain relief for specific issues.

However, the ratio of CBD to THC is changing a lot, which is why states have to find a way to regulate this particular market, and we should choose based on our preferences and things we wish to achieve.

The Amount of CBD Is Waning

The Content of CBD has reduced over time,and according to most researchers, the main reason for this particular fact is that CBD is perfect for treating different types of mood disorders and brain issues such as Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease,and schizophrenia.

It also features antipsychotic effects; it can affect the side effects of THC such as paranoia, and other parts of it that will make you feel unreliable. Therefore, the idea and the fact that breeders want to make weed that will help you get high; smoking pot is different based on strain and levels of THC and CBD.

Even though you wish to rely on medicinal properties of CBD within a weed strain, you purchase, you will not get too much of it, and psychoactive effects are increasing as time goes by. We cannot make a homogenous market when it comes to retail and medicinal purposes.

One plant can have purple while others can have green leaves, and the percentage of cannabinoids tend to change based on the strength. However, the ratio of CBD to THC and other cannabinoids is not changing, because these two components are most important for both sellers and buyers.

Contaminations Are Increasing As Well

The analysis we have mentioned above has tested the number of contaminates when it comes to its chemical and biological varieties, which means everything from solvents to microbes. You should have in mind that this particular team found lots of dirty stuff on it.

Even though the weed strain looks impressive and beautiful, and when you check it inside for biological properties, you will notice the massive percentage of fungi and other contaminants that will affect both effect and medicinal benefits.

Some samples also feature butane, which is used for wax, but that was the case only for high potency weeds and strains. When it comes to biological contaminants, they are not too surprising, because marijuana is a plant and it is prone to those situations.

However, in general, contaminants that feature chemical compounds that are not healthy for human usage could lead to unsafe consumption. Even though we are talking here about a natural product, you will still notice microbial growth whatever you decide to do.

The question is whether these contaminants could affect the overall health of the consumer and whether you should be concerned before you make up your mind.

Check this website: https://www.wikihow.com/Grow-Medical-Marijuana if you wish to learn more on how to grow a perfect weed inside your home for medicinal purposes.

What Can We Expect In The Future?

Since the rise of THC content in cannabis plants increased and is going on for years according to most researches, the surge will be much more significant than we can expect and the future will bring even more potency to your table.

However, the debate that we wish to start is whether this particular idea is healthy for the general public and whether it will affect the way, we function. The rise of THC content is not a concern; this appropriate variability will make it more challenging to create a dosage for medicinal treatment so that you can get the wanted effect afterward.

It means that you will have to consume excessive doses that could lead to severe clinical and mental side effects due to THC so that you can implement the right dosage of CBD for pain relief and other issues you are fighting.

The increase of THC content is creating more and more weed-related ER visits in the USA in the last few years according to Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The more THC weed contains, the stronger are its effects on the brain, and that could lead to a toxic reaction and even psychosis to some users.

Even if you are an occasional user, you can end up in ER because your body has not been used to its potent dosage. Since the number of people consuming weed increased, the number of ER visits and emergencies also doubledas a result.

As400: Benefits of Cloud Backup Services

Every business owner or manager knows how important it is to back up important data, and when a company relies on technology to communicate with customers and suppliers, share data and store files, then almost all data is needed for a company that makes backup services critical. Cloud backups are data protection by storing them in remote online storage, commonly referred to as the cloud. A recent study found that a large percentage of small and medium enterprises still face data loss because they use direct-attached storage, rather than cloud services. Data loss can be critical for a company, and many small businesses never recover from such an event, so it’s important to explore your options when it comes to storing and backing up data and finding many advantages with cloud computing and backups. How they are enough.

Improved protection of your data

First of all, cloud backup services offer you improved protection of your data, providing the ability to recover all data. This is possible thanks to advanced encryption and security technologies that underpin cloud backup. Since small and medium businesses do not have a rich IT budget, access is important to them, and cloud services offer a very low total cost of ownership. Storage and backup in the cloud is very affordable, and subscription prices tend to be valid throughout the year, which means predictability of costs, which is another important advantage for small and medium enterprises. Another important advantage of cloud services is ease of use, since such services provide access of any type anytime, anywhere. In addition, cloud data allows you to use easy-to-use interfaces and easy-to-use web-based management systems. Minimal maintenance is needed for those devices that are used to synchronize data in the cloud. Thanks to this convenience, cloud solutions are quickly deployed, which is another important advantage. In a matter of minutes, companies can enjoy data deployment and simple setup and configuration. Continuous management is not the only aspect that provides such comfort, since the recovery process is also very simple.

High level of flexibility

Perhaps the most important advantage of backup in the cloud is its high level of flexibility. As the business grows or declines, their IT needs change, but cloud storage is highly scalable and can quickly and easily increase or decrease its capacity to meet their specific needs. If you use cloud services, you can also save money on energy, since you will not need large server rooms or power consumption. Clouds are perfect for companies with green IT initiatives. The bottom line is that as400 cloud backup services are automatic, simple and inexpensive and offer better protection for business data — all the benefits any company would like to get from a backup service. This is definitely an alternative worth considering for small and medium businesses.

Conclusion

When it comes to worrying about whether you will lose data accidentally or not, many cloud storage services have built-in disaster recovery, which allows people to retrieve important data, even if the system or software has fault. Again, this is one of the top priorities for these service providers, and, of course, this is not something that users of this service should worry too much about.

Why slot punches are the apt choice for your needs

Slot punches are valuable devices which goes on to make consistent hole in your ID badges so that you can wear it with relative ease. With a slot punch you can attach the ID card to your belt or other types of clothing. This can be undertaken via an attachment or a badge clip.  Punch manufacturers India suggests that the superior quality ones will punch in the correct time and will not split like the other holing methods do.

The slot choice is difficult as there are many options available. Manual punches are there that can help you with a few badges but for a large number of cards it would be physically very difficult to use them. A superior version of the slot punches includes the electrical versions. With large corporations this punch is popular which work on many badges during the course of the day. The punch is consistent, easy and always at the service to perform. Most of them are embedded with foot punch which means that a mere foot press would be enough to accomplish the task. Punches exporters have incorporated a standard along with a heavy duty model which accomplishes the most demanding of jobs.

When it is the case of a large number of jobs, a slot punch (table top) works out to be the best option. You will find that the punch is simple, deliver consistent results and serves for a long period of time. For small to medium sized organizations, that have a lot of printing card requirements, are going to surely find this punch a worthy purchase.

The hand held slots are the most economical and easy to operate as well. An occasional badge marker will suffice in most cases. If you are going to punch in a lot of badges at a single time, this slot does not seem to be a worthy choice. The physical process of using this batch does seem to be a very difficult process to be precise.

The staple style slot punches replicate a stapler in a lot of ways. They can be set up in a table and you can push them in a slot. For a host of applications this punch is sufficient. If you are looking to undertake more than a single function, specialized slot punches are going to suffice. They can go on to formulate a slot or a round slot that depends upon the job needs. It means that the card is not going to have a rough or round shape. These punches go by the name of three in one slot punches. To decide what punch matches your needs you need to pose the following questions

  • What is the amount of I cards you are going to print at a single time
  • What would be your budget along with your specific requirements
  • What is the size of the slot punch you are going to need

To conclude slot punches are a durable investment that serves you for a long time.

An Introduction to Formwork

Formwork is an essential ingredient in the construction of any concrete structure. Used for thousands of years, formwork is essentially temporary or permanent moulds into which wet concrete (or other liquids) are poured until it cures and is self-supporting. Formwork has evolved over the centuries to include a range of different types of formwork today which are used for different purposes (ceilings, walls, columns, slabs, etc).

The role of formwork has been prominent in construction since the ancient Romans began using formwork made from reeds. Reed remains and impressions have been found in the walls of ancient Roman structures indicating that they were used as both removable and insulating formwork. Reeds were an ideal material to use as formwork during these times as they were an abundant resource which were flexible and lightweight.

Up until the introduction of Portland cement in the mid-19th century, formwork was mainly used in masonry due to concrete being expensive and in a limited supply. Once Portland cement was introduced as a cheap and accessible building material, concrete became extremely popular due to its strength, durability, and versatility.

What is formwork made from?

While there are a wide range of materials which are used to make formwork, timber has been the most popular material until recently. Due to depleting forest reserves and obvious environmental issues, steel and plywood are becoming more popular in todays times, however other materials such as plastic and fibreglass are also being used. The type of material used in any particular formwork relies heavily on the nature of the structure and the available budget.

While formwork generally refers to the forms into which concrete is poured, the bracing and frames which provide stability during the curing process are also known as formwork. Additional components such as the joists, bearers, foundations, and footings which are included in the formwork assembly are technically referred to as falsework.

What are the different types of formwork?

There are several types of formwork which are available for construction. Some of the most common types of formwork include:

Traditional TimberFormwork: Constructed on-site from timber or plywood, traditional formwork is easy to produce but very time-consuming for complex structures. Traditional formwork has a low lifespan (around 10-12 uses) however it is very flexible and ideal for complicated sections.

Engineered Formwork System: Built from prefabricated modules with a metal frame which is significantly faster than traditional formwork (pins and screws clip together) and can be reused thousands of times.

Reusable Plastic Formwork: An interlocking and modular system that is used for simple and repetitive construction projects such as mass housing schemes. The plastic panels are lightweight and very robust.

Permanent Insulated Formwork: Usually constructed on-site from insulating concrete forms (ICF), permanent insulated formwork remains in the structure after the concrete has cured and provides superior strength, thermal, and acoustic insulation.

‘Stay-In-Place’ Structural Formwork Systems: Usually constructed on-site from prefabricated fibre-reinforced plastic forms which are typically used for columns and piers. This formwork remains in the structure after the concrete has cured and acts as axial and shear reinforcement, along with preventing corrosion and freeze-thaw cycles.

What safety concerns need to be considered?

Safety is the primary concern when constructing formwork as working from heights, operating mobile cranes, and excavating foundations presents significant health and safety risks to workers. Generally speaking, the greater the complexity of the structure, the greater risks are presented to workers when constructing, assembling, and disassembling formwork. As a result, the designers play an integral role and need to ensure that adequate working platforms, special equipment, and detailed inspections are provided to ensure worker safety.

The designers of formwork must use engineering principles and technical standards that comply with Australia’s regulatory requirements for formwork, which state that formwork must be:

  1. Rigid, watertight, braced and tied together to maintain position and shape during construction; and
  2. Can be easily and safely removed without damaging the formed concrete orhas permanent components that remain within the completed structure so the remaining forms can be removed without damaging the structure.

Due to the high risk nature of working with formwork, it’s paramount that all staff have the relevant training according to Australian Standards AS3610: Formwork for Concrete. If you have any questions about formwork or just need some friendly advice, reach out to the experts at Uni-Span by phoning 1300 882 825.